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Endocrine Hypertension: Diagnosis and Management of a Complex Clinical Entity

[ Vol. 8 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Panagiotis Anagnostis, Asterios Karagiannis, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Vasilios G. Athyros, Marina Kita and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis   Pages 646 - 660 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Hypertension is a major contributor to vascular morbidity and mortality. Endocrine hypertension (EH) refers to secondary hypertension caused by specific endocrine abnormalities. The significance of EH is that the identification of the underlying disorder and its management may lead to partial or complete normalization of blood pressure. When EH is suspected thorough investigation with biochemical and imaging testing are necessary to establish or exclude mineralocorticoid, catecholamine, glucocorticoid, thyroid, parathyroid or growth hormone disorders as well as rare hereditary syndromes. In addition, it is important to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. The present review provides an update on the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of EH. We also discuss the diagnostic work-ups and therapeutic strategies.

Keywords:

Endocrine hypertension, primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome

Affiliation:

Department of Clinical Biochemistry (Vascular Prevention Clinic), Royal Free Hospital Campus, University College London, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK.



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