Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Taiki Tojo and Tohru Izumi Pages 271 - 281 ( 11 )
Prospective epidemiologic studies have shown that dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia are major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Undesirable metabolic conditions are observed to coexist in patients with metabolic syndrome, which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To prevent cardiovascular disease, a pleiotropic agent is needed to improve the metabolic disorder in patients with metabolic syndrome. Bile acid binding resins increase the fecal excretion of bile acids. The decrease in bile acids returned to the liver leads to an up-regulation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity, which decreases LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in the circulation and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. On the other hand, bile acids can also regulate the transcription of genes involved in LDL-C synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis via nuclear hormone receptors. Consequently, these receptors may represent novel therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and provide insight into the role of the bile acid pathway in other metabolic processes. This review focuses on the recent findings on bile acid binding resins and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Moreover, known and proposed mechanisms of how bile acid binding resins may improve glucose and energy metabolism are discussed; these effects may help to explain the mechanisms by which bile acid binding resins may reduce cardiovascular disease.
Anion-exchange resins, bile acids, pleiotropic effects, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, obesity
Department of Cardioangiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555, Japan.