Ioanna Gouni-Berthold and Agapios Sachinidis Pages 363 - 370 ( 8 )
Elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels represent one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis and therefore cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. LDL-C operates at different levels and through various classic and non-classic mechanisms. For example, it has been recently shown that both native and oxidized LDL are potent growth factors for several cell types such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) participating in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, LDL-C modulates the expression of various growth factors and growth factor receptors that are involved in the process of atherosclerosis. More specifically, LDL-C can phosphorylate and therefore activate the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and enhance the production of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA and of the PDGF receptors. LDL as well as oxidized LDL (oxLDL) signal transduction pathways involve trimeric G-proteins and cAMP, protein kinase C and ceramide, diacylglycerol and inositol-1,4,5- triphosphate, Ca+2, Na+/H+ exchange, c-fos and egr-1, phospholipases C, A2 and D, Raf-1, MEK1/2, the ERK1/2 (p42/44), SAP/JNK and p38 isoforms of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) as well as the signal transuding element gp 130. Furthermore, the mitogenic effects of oxLDL may be mediated by its oxidation products such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), through LDL-induced lactosylceramide (LacCer) synthesis, and, as our group has recently shown, through LDL-adherent factors such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) We review the various LDL-mediated signal transduction pathways implicated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
ldl, atherosclerosis, signal transduction, map kinases, g proteins, phospholipids
Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Cologne, Robert-Koch Str. 39, 50931Cologne, Germany.