Hidekatsu Nakashima, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Haruhiko Ohtsu, James Y. Chao, Hirotoshi Utsunomiya, Gerald D. Frank and Satoru Eguchi Pages 67 - 78 ( 12 )
Accumulating evidence strongly implicates angiotensin II (AngII) intracellular signaling in mediating cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and restenosis after vascular injury. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), through its G-protein-coupled AngII Type 1 receptor (AT1), AngII activates various intracellular protein kinases, such as receptor or non-receptor tyrosine kinases, which includes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), c-Src, PYK2, FAK, JAK2. In addition, AngII activates serine/threonine kinases such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, p70 S6 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B and various protein kinase C isoforms. In VSMCs, AngII also induces the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play critical roles in activation and modulation of above signal transduction. Less is known about endothelial cell (EC) AngII signaling than VSMCs, however, recent studies suggest that endotheli al AngII signaling negatively regulates the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway and thereby induces endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, in both VSMCs and ECs, AngII signaling cross-talk with insulin signaling might be involved in insulin resistance, an important risk factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases. In fact, clinical and pharmacological studies showed that AngII infusion induces insulin resistance and AngII converting enzyme inhibitors and AT1 receptor blockers improve insulin sensitivity. In this review, we focus on the recent findings that suggest the existence of novel signaling mechanisms whereby AngII mediates processes, such as activation of receptor or non-receptor tyrosine kinases and ROS, as well as cross-talk between insulin and NO signal transduction in VSMCs and ECs.
Angiotensin II, AT1 receptor, signal transduction, EGF receptor, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction
Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, 3420 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA;