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COVID-19-associated Coagulopathy and Thromboembolism: Determination of their Patterns and Risk Factors as Predictors of Mortality Among Severe COVID-19 Patients

Author(s):

Iftikhar Haider Naqvi*, Muhammad Tanveer Alam, Muhammad Rehan, Khalid Mahmood, M Aurangzeb and Abu Talib  

Abstract:


Background: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with coagulopathy (CAC) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). These are well-reported complications of COVID-19 infection. Earlier publications have shown that CAC and thromboembolism are predictors of mortality among COVID-19 patients with severe disease.

Material and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) where all confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled and followed until death or ICU discharge. CAC, VTE, along with all comorbidities were recorded. Predictors of mortality were determined by univariate and multivariate regression.

Results: Among 261 patients with COVID-19, 48.3% survived and 51.7% died. CAC was present in 53.2% and 76.3% of the survivors and non-survivors, respectively (p<0.001); 89 patients (31.4%) had VTE (p=0.36) and 11 patients (4.2%) had arterial thrombosis (p=0.76) among survivors and non-survivors. Age between 71-80 years (p=0.009), male gender (p=0.045), CAC (p<0.001), comorbidities like chronic kidney disease (CKD, p=0.013), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, p=0.001) and asthma (p=0.046), were significant predictors of mortality.

Conclusion: A severe complication of COVID-19 is CAC, such as sepsis-induced coagulopathy, overt disseminated-coagulopathy and VTE. Old age, various comorbidities (e.g. COPD, CKD or asthma), CAC, VTE (pulmonary embolism) and coagulation parameters with critical severity score (D-dimers, platelets, prothrombin time) and the SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score were significant predictors of mortality among COVID-19 patients.

Keywords:

Venous thromboembolism, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, sepsis-induced coagulopathy, overt disseminated intravascular coagulation

Affiliation:

Department of Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Department of Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Department of Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Department of Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Department of Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi, Department of Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi



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