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Inflammatory Markers in Cardiovascular Disease; Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives

[ Vol. 19 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Dimitrios Patoulias, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Vasilios Athyros, Haris Grassos, Michael Doumas and Charles Faselis*   Pages 323 - 342 ( 20 )

Abstract:


Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is now established that inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, and thus, it is closely linked to cardiovascular disease.

Objective: The aim of the present review is to summarize and critically appraise the most relevant evidence regarding the potential use of inflammatory markers in the field of CVD.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive research of the relevant literature, searching MEDLINE from its inception until November 2018, primarily for meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

Results: Established markers of inflammation, mainly C-reactive protein, have yielded significant results both for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Newer markers, such as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, cytokines, myeloperoxidase, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, and the CD40/CD40 ligand system, have been largely evaluated in human studies, enrolling both individuals from the general population and patients with established CVD. Some markers have yielded conflicting results; however, others are now recognized not only as promising biomarkers of CVD, but also as potential therapeutic targets, establishing the role of anti-inflammatory and pleiotropic drugs in CVD.

Conclusion: There is significant evidence regarding the role of consolidated and novel inflammatory markers in the field of diagnosis and prognosis of CVD. However, multimarker model assessment, validation of cut-off values and cost-effectiveness analyses are required in order for those markers to be integrated into daily clinical practice.

Keywords:

Cardiovascular disease, inflammation, atherosclerosis, biomarker, acute ischemic events, therapeutic targets.

Affiliation:

Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Cardiology Department, KAT Hospital, Athens, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, VA Medical Center, and George Washington University, Washington, DC 20422

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