Myrto Kostopoulou , Dionysis Nikolopoulos, Ioannis Parodis and George Bertsias * Pages 549 - 565 ( 17 )
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is associated with increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) events including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease. CV events occur both early and late during the disease course, with younger patients being at much higher risk than age-matched counterparts. The risk cannot be fully accounted for by the increased prevalence of traditional atherosclerotic factors and may be due to pathophysiologic intermediates such as type I interferons and other inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, activated granulocytes and production of extracellular chromatin traps, antiphospholipid and other autoantibodies causing dysfunction of lipoproteins, altogether resulting in endothelial injury and pro-atherogenic dyslipidaemia. These mechanisms may be further aggravated by chronic intake of prednisone (even at doses <7.5 mg/day), whereas immunomodulatory drugs, especially hydroxychloroquine, may exert antiatherogenic properties. To date, there is a paucity of randomized studies regarding the effectiveness of preventative strategies and pharmacological interventions specifically in patients with SLE. Nevertheless, both the European League Against Rheumatism recommendations and extrapolated evidence from the general population emphasize that SLE patients should undergo regular monitoring for atherosclerotic risk factors and calculation of the 10-year CV risk. Risk stratification should include diseaserelated factors and accordingly, general (lifestyle modifications/smoking cessation, antihypertensive and statin treatment, low-dose aspirin in selected cases) and SLE-specific (control of disease activity, minimization of glucocorticoids, use of hydroxychloroquine) preventive measures be applied as appropriate. Further studies will be required regarding the use of non-invasive tools and biomarkers for CV assessment and of risk-lowering strategies tailored to SLE.
Autoimmune disease, type I interferon, antiphospholipid antibodies, glucocorticoids, dyslipidaemia, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, statin.
4th Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Joint Rheumatology Program, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, 4th Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Joint Rheumatology Program, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet and Rheumatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Rheumatology and Allergy, University of Crete Medical School, Iraklio