Triantafyllos Didangelos* and Aristidis Veves Pages 1 - 14 ( 14 )
Neuropathies of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems affect up to half of all people with diabetes mellitus, and are major risk factors for foot ulceration, amputation and cardiovascular dysfunction. Peripheral neuropathies manifest with either painful or painless symptoms, but many patients experience both. Once diagnosed appropriately, painful diabetic neuropathy management presents a unique challenge for physicians and should be considered as a syndrome, clinically distinct from diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The aetiology is multifactorial: metabolic changes in diabetes may directly affect neural tissue and neurodegenerative changes are precipitated by compromised nerve vascular supply. Metabolic changes include the elevated polyol pathway activity, the increased oxidative stress, the formation of advanced glycation and lipoxidation end products, and various pro-inflammatory changes. These mechanisms work in combination and interact in a mutually facilitatory fashion. This review focuses on the current therapies for the management of peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and of painful neuropathy as a distinct entity, based on the current knowledge of diabetic neuropathy. Moreover, the role of ACE inhibition has been explored in the treatment of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy.
Diabetes, neuropathy, treatment, ACE Inhibitors
Diabetes Center, 1st Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, ``AHEPA`` Hospital, Thessaloniki, The Rongxiang Xu, MD, Center for Regenerative Therapeutics, Research Director and the Joslin-Beth Israel Deaconess Foot Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Boston, MA