Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Pharmacological Management of Cardiac Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Insights into Clinical Practice

[ Vol. 18 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Dimitrios Patoulias, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Vasilios Athyros, Michael Doumas* and Asterios Karagiannis   Pages 125 - 138 ( 14 )

Abstract:


Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has emerged as a growing pandemic. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) constitutes another major health problem, with coronary heart disease being the leading cause of cardiovascular death. Patients with T2DM require a multilevel therapeutic approach, both for primary and secondary prevention of CVD.

Objective: To present and summarize the most recent, highest level evidence retrieved from literature, relevant to the pharmaceutical management of CVD in T2DM.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature on MEDLINE from its inception till today, primarily for relevant systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials.

Results: There is a trend towards more intensified therapeutic interventions in T2DM, concerning glycemic, lipid and blood pressure control. New drugs, such as sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/ kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors might evolve as key players in the management of diabetes and its complications within the next years. Classic drugs, such as those targeting the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system, statins and aspirin remain first-line treatment options, both for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Lifestyle interventions should always be integrated into a complete therapeutic strategy in diabetic patients. Novel drugs, such as finerenone and LCZ696 have provided significant results in cardiovascular outcome studies; however, their role in T2DM has to be further elucidated.

Conclusion: Pharmaceutical approach of CVD in T2DM is multilevel and complex. Drug classes featuring pleiotropic effects may boost our armamentarium in the fight against CVD.

Keywords:

Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, mortality, prevention, insulin, glycemic control.

Affiliation:

Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital “Hippokration”, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital “Hippokration”, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital “Hippokration”, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital “Hippokration”, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital “Hippokration”, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital “Hippokration”, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki



Read Full-Text article