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Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation. Myths and Realities with Regard to Cardiovascular Risk

Author(s):

Giovanna Muscogiuri*, Luigi Barrea, Barbara Altieri, Carolina Di Somma, Harjitpal Bhattoa, Daniela Laudisio, Guillaume T. Duval, Gabriella Pugliese, Cédric Annweiler, Francesco Orio, Hana Fakhouri, Silvia Savastano and Annamaria Colao   Pages 1 - 8 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Vitamin D and calcium are considered crucial for the treatment of bone diseases. Both vitamin D and calcium contribute to bone homeostasis but also preserve muscle health by reducing the risk of falls and fractures. Low vitamin D concentrations result in secondary hyperparathyroidism and contribute to bone loss, although the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism varies, even in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency. Findings from observational studies have shown controversial results regarding to the association between bone mineral density and vitamin D/calcium status, thus sparking a debate regarding optimum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium for the best possible skeletal health. Although most of intervention studies reported a positive effect of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D on bone in patients with osteoporosis, this therapeutic approach has been a matter of debate regarding potential side effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Thus, the aim of this review is to consider the current evidence on the physiological role of vitamin D and calcium on bone and muscle health. Moreover, we provide an overview on observational and interventional studies that investigate the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on bone health, also taking into account the possible CV side-effects. We also provide molecular insights on the effect of calcium plus vitamin D on the CV system.

Keywords:

vitamin D, cardiovascular system, calcium, myocardial infarction, stroke

Affiliation:

Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Endocrinology Unit, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Endocrinology Unit, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Endocrinology Unit, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, IRCCS, SDN, Via Gianturco 113, 80143, Naples, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Endocrinology Unit, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Department of Geriatric Medicine; University Memory Center; Research Center on Autonomy and Longevity (CeRAL); Angers University Hospital, Angers, France; School of Medicine and UPRES EA 4638, University of Angers, Angers, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Endocrinology Unit, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Department of Geriatric Medicine; University Memory Center; Research Center on Autonomy and Longevity (CeRAL); Angers University Hospital, Angers, France; School of Medicine and UPRES EA 4638, University of Angers, Angers, Department of Sports Science and Wellness, , Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Al Faisal University, Riyadh, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Endocrinology Unit, Federico II University Medical School of Naples, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Endocrinology Unit, Federico II University Medical School of Naples



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