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Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation. Myths and Realities with Regard to Cardiovascular Risk

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Giovanna Muscogiuri*, Luigi Barrea, Barbara Altieri, Carolina Di Somma, Harjit pal Bhattoa, Daniela Laudisio, Guillaume T. Duval, Gabriella Pugliese, Cédric Annweiler, Francesco Orio, Hana Fakhouri, Silvia Savastano and Annamaria Colao   Pages 610 - 617 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Vitamin D and calcium are considered crucial for the treatment of bone diseases. Both vitamin D and calcium contribute to bone homeostasis but also preserve muscle health by reducing the risk of falls and fractures. Low vitamin D concentrations result in secondary hyperparathyroidism and contribute to bone loss, although the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism varies, even in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency. Findings from observational studies have shown controversial results regarding the association between bone mineral density and vitamin D/calcium status, thus sparking a debate regarding optimum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium for the best possible skeletal health. Although most of the intervention studies reported a positive effect of supplementation with calcium and vitamin D on bone in patients with osteoporosis, this therapeutic approach has been a matter of debate regarding potential side effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Thus, the aim of this review is to consider the current evidence on the physiological role of vitamin D and calcium on bone and muscle health. Moreover, we provide an overview on observational and interventional studies that investigate the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on bone health, also taking into account the possible CV side-effects. We also provide molecular insights on the effect of calcium plus vitamin D on the CV system.

Keywords:

Vitamin D, cardiovascular system, calcium, myocardial infarction, stroke, bone health.

Affiliation:

Endocrinology Unit, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Medical School of Naples, Naples, Endocrinology Unit, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Medical School of Naples, Naples, Endocrinology Unit, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Medical School of Naples, Naples, IRCCS, SDN, Via Gianturco 113, 80143, Naples, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Endocrinology Unit, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Medical School of Naples, Naples, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Memory Center, Research Center on Autonomy and Longevity (CeRAL), Angers University Hospital, Angers, France, School of Medicine and UPRES EA 4638, University of Angers, Angers, Endocrinology Unit, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Medical School of Naples, Naples, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Memory Center, Research Center on Autonomy and Longevity (CeRAL), Angers University Hospital, Angers, France, School of Medicine and UPRES EA 4638, University of Angers, Angers, Department of Sports Science and Wellness, "Parthenope" University Naples, Naples, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Al Faisal University, Riyadh, Endocrinology Unit, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Medical School of Naples, Naples, Endocrinology Unit, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Federico II University, Medical School of Naples, Naples

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