Marco De Carlo*, Marco Angelillis and Riccardo Liga Pages 1 - 13 ( 13 )
Lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) represents a major public health burden, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Although risk-factor modification, exercise training and medical treatment are the mainstays of the management of LEAD, endovascular or surgical revascularisation is recommended when there is the risk of limb amputation and when drug-resistant claudication severely affects patient lifestyle. Over recent years, the number of peripheral vascular interventions (PVI) has soared worldwide, driven by the improvements in endovascular techniques and devices. This growth was accompanied by a large number of clinical trials aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of the various revascularisation modalities, while very little evidence was collected regarding the best antithrombotic treatment in patients undergoing peripheral revascularisation. In particular, considering the extensive length of diseased vessels usually treated in PVI, an optimised approach to both platelet function and coagulation cascade is of paramount importance. However, the role of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs following lower extremity revascularisation is largely extrapolated from the coronary field. Current guidelines recommend long-term single antiplatelet treatment for the majority of both endovascular and surgical revascularisation procedures, preceded by an initial short-term dual antiplatelet treatment in case of PVI.We present an overview of the indications and techniques of both endovascular and surgical peripheral revascularisation, followed by an in-depth analysis of the available evidence regarding type and duration of antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment following revascularisation.
Lower extremity artery disease, peripheral vascular interventions, vascular surgery, antiplatelets, anticoagulants; antithrombotic treatment.
Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Cardiothoracic and Vascular Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Cardiothoracic and Vascular Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Cardiothoracic and Vascular Department, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa