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Endothelial Extracellular Vesicles Produced by Senescent Cells: Pathophysiological Role in the Cardiovascular Disease Associated with all Types of Diabetes Mellitus

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Julia Carracedo*, Matilde Alique, Rafael Ramírez-Carracedo, Guillermo Bodega and Rafael Ramírez   Pages 447 - 454 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Endothelial senescence-associated with aging or induced prematurely in pathological situations, such as diabetes, is a first step in the development of Cardiovascular Disease (CVDs) and particularly inflammatory cardiovascular diseases. The main mechanism that links endothelial senescence and the progression of CVDs is the production of altered Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) by senescent endothelial cells among them, Microvesicles (MVs). MVs are recognized as intercellular signaling elements that play a key role in regulating tissue homeostasis. However, MVs produced by damage cell conveyed epigenetic signals, mainly involving microRNAs, which induce many of the injured responses in other vascular cells leading to the development of CVDs. Many studies strongly support that the quantification and characterization of the MVs released by senescent endothelial cells may be useful diagnostic tools in patients with CVDs, as well as a future therapeutic target for these diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge linking senescence-associated MVs to the development of CVDs and discuss the roles of these MVs, in particular, in diabetic-associated increases the risk of CVDs.

Keywords:

Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, endothelial senescence, epigenetic signals, extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, physiopathological mechanisms.

Affiliation:

Department of Genetic, Physiology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University/Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12), Madrid, Biology Systems Department, Physiology, Alcala University, Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Cardiovascular Joint Research Unit, University Francisco de Vitoria/ University Hospital Ramon y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), Madrid, Biomedicine and Biotechnology Department, Alcala University, Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Biology Systems Department, Physiology, Alcala University, Alcala de Henares, Madrid

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