S. Lioudaki*, C. Verikokos, G. Kouraklis, C. Ioannou, E. Chatziioannou, D. Perrea and C. Klonaris Pages 141 - 146 ( 6 )
Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is a calcium-dependent enzyme that is synthesized in the liver and then secreted in blood where it is bound to high density lipoprotein (HDL). PON-1 is a hydrolase with a wide range of substrates, including lipid peroxides. It is considered responsible for many of the antiatherogenic properties of HDL. PON-1 prevents low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, a process that is considered to contribute to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. PON-1 activity and levels are influenced by gene polymorphisms; of the 2 common variants, one is in position 192 (Q192R) and one in position 55 (M55L). Also, many drugs affect PON-1 activity. The role of PON-1 in carotid atherosclerosis is inconsistent. Some studies show an association of PON-1 polymorphisms with carotid plaque formation, whereas others do not. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics of PON-1, its interactions with drugs and its role in atherosclerosis and especially its relationship with carotid artery disease.
Paraoxonase, polymorphisms, atherosclerosis, carotid, oxidative stress, drugs.
Vascular Department, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, University of Crete, Heraklion, 2nd Department of Surgery, , 2nd Department of Surgery, , Vascular Department, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, University of Crete, Heraklion, Medical School of Athens, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Laboratory for Experimental Surgery and Surgical Research , 1st Department of Surgery