Charalampos N. Loutradis, Costas Tsioufis and Pantelis A. Sarafidis* Pages 54 - 60 ( 7 )
Hypertension (HT) is present in more than 80% of patients undergoing Hemodialysis (HD). Elevated Blood Pressure (BP) in hemodialysis patients is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality only when BP is recorded with home or ambulatory monitoring, since pre- and post-dialysis measurements are not valid estimates of BP levels during the interdialytic interval. Sodium and water overload is the most important of several mechanisms involved in HT development in HD. In this context, non-pharmacologic measures to ensure water and sodium balance by achieving patient dry weight and decreasing daily sodium intake, through modification of sodium level in the diet or in dialysis dialysate, are fundamental for HT control. After these strategies are properly implemented, the introduction of drug treatment can further help in achieving optimum BP. All major antihypertensive classes, with the exception of diuretics, can be considered in HT management, as current evidence suggest that the use of agents from these classes was associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. The choice of a specific antihypertensive drug should be based on the co-morbid conditions of the patient, and the pharmacologic characteristics of the agent, including dialyzability. Of note, the need of increasing the number of antihypertensive drugs, should be each time balanced against reappraisal of the non-pharmacologic measures, as increased antihypertensive efficacy can result in a vicious circle of more difficulties regarding dry weight reduction, possible volume overload, and further BP increase.
Hemodialysis, hypertension, sodium overload, blood pressure, ESRD, HD.
Department of Nephrology, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, First Cardiology Clinic, University of Athens, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Department of Nephrology, Hippokration Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki