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Sex Differences in Biomarkers for Predicting Cardiovascular and Coronary Events

[ Vol. 11 , Issue. 5 ]


Erjon Agushi, Borejda Xhyheri and Raffaele Bugiardini   Pages 785 - 794 ( 10 )


Introduction: Primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular Disease (CVD) are major concerns and priorities. The best tools that we actually have to prevent CVD are the biomarkers. Numerous studies have shown that the presentation of cardiac disease in women is quite different from the presentation in men. Thus, one question arises “Are there any differences in biomarkers as well?” The answer to this question could open new avenues for a tailored management of cardiac diseases. Method and Results: We searched the PubMed and Medline databases for articles comparing differences between the 2 genders in terms of biomarker expression. Keywords used included “Cardiovascular biomarkers sex differences”. We reviewed the role of different biomarkers in the 2 genders in relation to cardiac events. Conclusions: Differences of expressions in biomarker levels were found between the 2 genders. Further investigation should be promoted.


Cardiovascular biomarkers, gender differences.


Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Cardioangiologia, Epatologia (Padiglione 11) University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

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