Lawrence P. Reynolds, Kimberly A. Vonnahme, Caleb O. Lemley, Dale A. Redmer, Anna T. Grazul-Bilska, Pawel P. Borowicz and Joel S. Caton Pages 564 - 593 ( 30 )
This review discusses the importance of placental vascular development, as reflected by placental angiogenesis and placental blood flow, to placental function in normal pregnancies. We then summarize our current understanding of how maternal stress, including inadequate maternal nutrition as well as the application of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), leads to compromised placental angiogenesis and function and the subsequent effects on fetal and neonatal growth and development. Finally, we discuss several promising therapeutic approaches to ‘rescue’ placental vascular development and function in compromised pregnancies, leading to improved pregnancy and postnatal outcomes.
Maternal stress, maternal nutrition, placenta, vascular function, vascular architecture, angiogenesis.
Department of Animal Sciences, NDSU 7630, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050, USA.